History of Bulgaria
Few are the peoples in the world, that would have a good reason to boast of such an ancient history and culture. Being at an important crossroad between Europe and Asia, Bulgarian lands have been inhabited since as early as the Stone Age and the Stone-Copper Age. The presence of a developed civilization in Europe at that time is evidenced by a great number of archaeological findings. This is the period the oldest treasure in the world, found by Varna, dates back to.
In the 8th century B.C., the territory of Bulgaria was populated by Thracian tribes which left to the next generations a rich inheritance of material and spiritual culture masterpieces (the bronze treasure evoking admiration worldwide).
In the 7th century B.C. the Thracian state units were flourishing.
The Odris Kingdom was founded in the 5th century B.C.
In the 1st century B.C. the Thracians were conquered by the Roman Empire and their lands became Roman provinces.
- 395 – the lands are within Byzantium
- 6th-7th c. – Slavic tribes settled on these territories
- 7th c. – the Proto-Bulgarians, led by Khan Asparouh, arrived and settled
- 681 – the Proto-Bulgarians, the seven Slavic tribes and the Severs set up the Bulgarian state; Pliska became the capital city
- 8th–9th c. – political development and territory expansion - Khan Tervel, Khan Kroum (under his reign the first Bulgarian laws were created)
- 864 – under the reign of Knyaz Boris I, the Bulgarian people adopted Christianity
- 885 – the Slavonic alphabet created by two brothers – St. St. Cyril and Methodius, was spread around
- 870 – the Independent Bulgarian church was set up, and Archbishop Joseph /Stefan/ was at the head
- 893-927 – the so-called 'Golden Age' period, under the reign of Tsar Simeon; Preslav is the capital city. The state and culture flourished. New territories were added, and the Bulgarian shores were washed by the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The Bulgarian nation was formed from various ethnic groups – Bulgarians and Slavs, preserving also the culture of the antique settlements
- 967 – 1018 – Bulgaria was conquered by Byzantium due to the state weakening and internal turmoils
- 1185-1187 – an uprising, led by Assen and Petar; state restoration; the Second Bulgarian Kingdom was established with Turnovo as a capital city
- 1204 – Tsar Kaloyan's army defeated the Crusaders; stabilization of the Bulgarian state
- 1218-1241 – Tsar Ivan Assen II, Bulgaria bordered three seas; the Bulgarian Patriarchate was restored
- 1371 – Bulgaria was split between the heirs of Ivan Alexander (the Vidin Kingdom and the Turnovo Kingdom); weakening of the state
- 1396 – Bulgaria fell under the Ottoman rule; for years, a bitter struggle against the oppressors was carried out; lots of uprisings and riots broke out; the 'haidouts' (rebels) appeared
- 8th century – the beginning of the Bulgarian Revival
- 9th century – development of the national enlightenment and culture
- 3 April 1860 – the Bulgarian Church split off the Ecumenical Patriarchate
- 1869 – Vasil Levski set up a Bulgarian revolutionary committee
- 1870 – creation of the Bulgarian Ekzarchy
- 1876 – the outbreak of the April Uprising – the first organized attempt for getting liberation from the Ottoman rule
- 1877-1878 – the Russian-Turkish War which resulted in the liberation of Bulgaria
- 3 March 1978 – the San-Stefano Peace Treaty was signed; it was followed by the uniting of almost all Bulgarian lands
- July 1878 – the Berlin Treaty – Bulgaria got divided into: the Principality of Bulgaria (vassal to the Ottoman Empire; capital – Sofia) and Eastern Rumelia (part of the Ottoman Empire; capital – Plovdiv); Macedonia and Southern Thrace remained within the Ottoman Empire, the Vratsa region and the Pirot region were given to Serbia.
- 1879-1886 – Knyaz Alexander of Battenberg was in power
- 6 September 1885 – the Unification of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia
- 1885 – the Serbian-Bulgarian War ended up in the victory of the Bulgarian army
- 1886 – Alexander of Battenberg was dethroned
- 23 June 1887 – Ferdinand I of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was elected for Knyaz
- 1903 – the Ilinden-Preobrazhen Uprising broke out
- 22 September 1908 –the independence of Bulgaria was proclaimed
- 1908 – Bulgaria became Kingdom and Ferdinand – King of the Bulgarian people
- 1912 – Bulgaria waged the Balkan War together with Serbia and Greece for the liberation of Thrace and Macedonia. Bulgaria won that war
- 1913 – the Inter-Allies War, Bulgaria was attacked by 5 countries (Romania, Turkey, the former allies/, more territories were torn off
- 1915-1918 – the country participated in World War I and ended up in a national catastrophe
- 1918 – Tsar Ferdinand abdicated to the advantage of his son Boris III
- 1919 – The Peace Treaty of Neuilly imposed harsh clauses on Bulgaria, the access to the Aegean sea was taken away, West Thrace became a part of Greece, South Dobrudzha was annexed to Romania and Bosilegrad, Zaribrod and the villages round Kula were given to the Serbo-Croatian-Slovenian Kingdom
- In the beginning of the 40s Bulgaria became an adherent to Germany and the policy carried out was entirely in favour of Germany.
- August 1943 – Tsar Boris III died
- 5 September 1944 – the Soviet army entered Bulgaria
- 9 September 1944 – the government of the Fatherland Front was instated in Bulgaria headed by Kimon Georgiev
- 1946 - Bulgaria was proclaimed a people's republic
- The Bulgarian Communist party came into power, the economy and the banks were nationalized, the land was taken away from the owners and co-operatives were set up; At the head of the state there stood in succession Georgi Dimitrov, Vasil Kolarov, Vulko Chervenkov, Anton Yugov, Todor Zhivkov. The latter stayed in power more than the rest (up to 1989)
- 10 November 1989 – the start of the democratic changes in Bulgaria; a new constitution was adopted
- 1991 – the political parties were re-established, the property, taken away during the socialist power was reinstated, privatization started.